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Tracking militarists’ efforts to influence U.S. foreign policy

Trump, Donald

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Donald Trump is a real estate mogul, a former host of the TV game show “The Apprentice,” and the 45th president of the United States. Trump’s views on foreign policy and national security are frequently criticized as inconsistent and ad hoc, but he has staked out a largely hawkish agenda that contrasts sharply with that of his predecessor, would overturn long-standing U.S. policies, and could lead to increased instability around the world. He has spoken out against the Iran nuclear agreement, brushed aside concerns about Russian overseas aggression, spoken favorably of the use of torture, promised a more direct military response on ISIS, questioned the value of NATO, called for boosting the U.S. nuclear arsenal, threatened to undermine the status quo in U.S.-China relations, and embraced a one-sided view of relations with Israel that includes moving the U.S. embassy to Jerusalem, a move that critics warn could provoke violence across the Middle East.

On the Campaign Trail

Trump’s views on foreign affairs, which can veer between abrasively hawkish and quasi-isolationist, featured prominently during his election campaign. One early instance was a widely noted 2015 interview with conservative radio host Hugh Hewitt, during which Trump was unable to answer questions about key leaders and situations in the Middle East. After complaining that Hewitt was giving him “gotcha” questions, Trump said: “I mean, you know, when you’re asking me about who’s running this, this this, that’s not, that is not, I will be so good at the military, your head will spin.”[1]

Trump highlighted his ideas on terrorism and national security during a much-anticipated August 2016 speech in Youngstown, Ohio. Observers pointed to numerous misleading or false claims in the speech, including: his blaming Hillary Clinton and President Obama for withdrawing from Iraq, even though the Iraq withdrawal occurred according to a plan established by President George W. Bush and Trump had previously called (in 2008) for pulling out troops “right now”; his claim that he never supported the war in Iraq, despite the fact that he had previously voiced support for the war; and his demand that the Obama administration take actions against ISIS that it already was doing.

During a September 2016 MSNBC national security forum featuring both Trump and Hillary Clinton, the real estate mogul praised Vladimir Putin as a better leader than Barack Obama, said that he has “secret plan” to take on ISIS, and doubled down on his misleading claim that he did not support the Iraq War. The event was one of a number of occasions during which Trump embraced Putin despite the Russian leader’s autocratic rule and threatening posture towards the United States. Even analysts at GOP think tanks like the neoconservative American Enterprise Institute (AEI) have expressed alarm over this stance. “[Trump] sees a man who, aspirationally, he would like to be like,” said AEI’s Danielle Pletka. Referring to Trump, she added: “His instincts are authoritarian, and dangerous.”

Trump’s national security views have drawn both rebuke and praise from former military figures. In September 2016, a group of nearly 90 retired military officers signed an open letter supporting Trump. Many of the signatories are deeply tied to rightwing politics, including Lt. Gen. Michael T. Flynn, a controversial political pundit who has been admonished by military colleagues for his politicking and who Trump selected as his National Security Advsier; retired Lt. Gen. Thomas G. McInerney, a Fox News analyst who vigorously promoted the “war on terror” and has claimed that Obama was not born in the United States; and Lt. Gen. William Boykin, “who was criticized by President George W. Bush for describing the battle against Islamist terrorists as a religious proxy fight between a ‘Christian nation’ and the ‘idol’ of Islam.” Commented David Corn, “It’s no surprise that a Republican candidate who has bashed the Iran nuclear deal and called for spending more money on the military could round up this band of former generals and admirals. But here’s the real story: Mitt Romney, during the 2012 campaign, had 500 retired generals and admirals on his side.”

Many more military figures have excoriated Trump. In a leaked email, former Secretary of State and retired Gen. Colin Powell said Trump was a “national disgrace and an international pariah.” There have also been reports about Pentagon officials threatening to quit if Trump is elected.

In August 2016, several dozen former “national security officials” from Republican administrations as far back as Richard Nixon published an open letter saying they would not vote for Trump. They argued that he would be a “dangerous president,” that he appeared to “lack basic knowledge about and belief in the U.S. Constitution,” has “little understanding of America’s vital national interests,” displays “an alarming ignorance of basic facts of contemporary international politics,” and persistently “compliments our adversaries and threatens our friends and allies.”

Both conservative and liberal officials abroad have also expressed deep reservations about Trump. A notable example were comments by the UN Human Rights Commissioner Zeid Raad al-Hussein, who said that Trump posed a danger to the world. During a news conference in Geneva in mid-October 2016, the UN official said that “If Donald Trump is elected on the basis of what he has said already – and unless that changes – I think it is without any doubt that he would be dangerous from an international point of view.”

Dividing the neocons

Trump has divided key Republican Party constituencies, including notably the neoconservatives, whom some observers argue were instrumental in Trump’s rise to the top of the GOP. Several neocon figures associated with the George W. Bush administration and the Iraq War claimed during the presidential race they would vote for Hillary Clinton because of their deep misgivings about Trump, including former Pentagon chief Paul Wolfowitz and Project for the New American Century cofounder Robert Kagan. Said Wolfowitz in a widely cited Der Speigel interview: “He says he admires Putin, that Saddam Hussein was killing terrorists, that the Chinese were impressive because they were tough on Tiananmen Square. That is pretty disturbing.” Weekly Standard and Commentary contributor Max Boot has complained that “Trump is a fascist.”[2]

Other neoconservatives, however, like former CIA direct James Woolsey and Center for Security Policy head Frank Gaffney embraced Trump. After Trump’s foreign policy speech in Youngstown, Gaffney told Breitbart News: “Having had the privilege of serving with President Reagan, I know it when I see it. What Donald Trump did, in this piece, was lay out both an understanding of the existential threat we’re facing—and this, of course, is something Reagan described as every generation’s task, is to confront existential threats to freedom. And Donald Trump said ours is radical Islam.”

Top neoconservative pundit Bill Kristol initially vociferously opposed Trump, going so far as to propose creating a “new party” if “Trump wins the GOP nomination.”[3] After Trump clinched the nomination, Kristol continued to berate him, though his views appeared to soften. “If it were a domestic policy election, I probably would swallow hard and vote for Trump,” said Kristol in a July 2016 interview with Politico. “If it were a pure foreign policy election, I’d probably swallow hard and vote for Hillary Clinton.”

Commenting on the these reactions, Justin Raimondo of the libertarian Antiwar.com wrote: “Trump, for all his contradictions, gives voice to the ‘isolationist’ populism that [Sen. Marco] Rubio and his neocon confederates despise, and which is implanted so deeply in the American consciousness.”[4]

On the Israeli-Palestinian conflict

A key source of contention between Trump and rightwing “pro-Israel” factions has been his erratic views concerning the Middle East peace process. Regarding the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, Trump has stated: “We love Israel. We will fight for Israel 100 percent, 1,000 percent.”[5] He has also endorsed altering long-standing U.S. policy to move the U.S. embassy in Israel from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem. “They want it in Jerusalem. Well I am for that 100 percent. We are for that 100 percent,” he stated in January 2016.[6]

However, at a December 2015 speech for the Sheldon Adelsonfunded Republican Jewish Coalition, Trump suggested that Israel was not committed to making peace with the Palestinians. “I don’t know that Israel has the commitment to make it [a peace agreement], and I don’t know the other side has the commitment to make it,” he opined.[7]

An additional complication for the Trump campaign was the candidate’s “anti-Semitic followers, anti-Semitic (re)tweets and anti-Semitic-ish comments to Republican donors,” as FiveThirtyEight reported. “For those Jews who are primarily interested in American foreign policy in the Middle East, Trump’s lack of engagement with foreign affairs and unprecedented lack of experience in government make him an unknown quantity on many public policies, including foreign policy toward Israel. His early statements on Israel also signaled possible deviation from the standard pro-Likud line.”

As a consequence of all these factors, Trump’s support in the Jewish-American community plummeted in the lead up to the election. According to FiveThirtyEight, “So far in 2016, of all the money given to major-party candidates by donors who appear to be Jewish, 95 percent has gone to Hillary Clinton and just 5 percent has gone to Donald Trump.”

In the months after his election, however, Trump repeatedly embraced a one-sided view of relations with Israel, including nominating a hardliner as U.S. ambassador to Israel (David Friedman) and reiterating his support for moving the U.S. embassy to Jerusalem, which could trigger violence across the region. After the December 2016 UN resolution condemning Israeli settlements in occupied territories, a vote the Obama administration chose to abstain from, Trump condemned the resolution, pressured Obama to veto it, said it was a “big loss” for Israel, and claimed that “things would be different” when he became president. Commented retired CIA officer and prominent foreign policy analyst Paul R. Pillar:

“It is not only that Trump issued a statement that constituted an attempt to pressure the current administration into a course of action that would do the bidding of a foreign government. His operation met with a delegation organized by Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, so secretly that Israeli press that learned of the visit describes it as ‘clandestine.’ … As a matter of substance, Trump’s posture toward the UN resolution should be occasion for deep dismay. Long forgotten is his promise to be a ‘neutral guy‘ in addressing the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Since he made that pledge he has come to terms with Sheldon Adelson and, through other statements and appointments, has made clear that he will be anything but neutral. In case there was any remaining doubt about that as of a couple of weeks ago, all such doubt was erased with his appointment as ambassador to Israel of bankruptcy lawyer David Friedman—who, by his own words, including likening liberal U.S. Jews to Nazi stooges, and by his personal connections to the settler movement, is firmly opposed to peace and in favor of indefinite occupation. It would be less incredible for Friedman to become Israeli ambassador to the United States rather than the other way around, although even then he would be representing only an extreme right wing rather than the people and interests of Israel as a whole.”

On nuclear weapons

Trump’s statements on nuclear weapons have been the subject of particular concern. In an interview with Chris Matthews during the election campaign, Trump suggested that he would use nuclear weapons to combat ISIS. When Matthews countered that no one in the world wants to hear a U.S. presidential candidate talk about using nuclear weapons, Trump said: “Than why do we make them?” In another incident, MSNBC’s Joe Scarborough reported that a “foreign policy expert” told him that during briefings with Trump the candidate repeatedly asked “If we have them, why can’t we use them?”

Former Trump supporter and fellow billionaire Mark Cuban, asked why did not support Trump’s presidential candidacy, highlighted the nuclear issue as one of many reasons, saying: “The tipping issues were Trump’s positions on NATO, our treaties, dealing with our allies, his comments on nuclear weapons, and his lack of understanding of the concept of deterrence. His ignorance of these issues scared the shit out of me.”

Trump reignited concerns about his nuclear weapons views when, a few weeks before his inauguration, he said on Twitter that the U.S. “must greatly strengthen and expand its nuclear capability until such time as the world comes to its senses regarding nukes.” Trump’s campaign manager later attempted to downplay the statement, saying “He’s not making policy on Twitter” and misleadingly arguing that “perhaps” Trump was  “echoing what President Obama himself has tried to do here, which is get upgrades to our nuclear systems.”

Racism

Trump has spurred widespread criticism and condemnation for his racist rhetoric about immigrants. When he announced his presidential bid, Trump proclaimed: “When Mexico sends its people, they’re not sending their best. … They’re sending people that have lots of problems, and they’re bringing those problems with us. They’re bringing drugs. They’re bringing crime. They’re rapists. And some, I assume, are good people.”[8]

Trump has promised to construct a wall along the roughly 2,000-mile U.S.-Mexico, which he claims that Mexico will build.[9] A key source of inspiration for his idea is Israel: “People say you can’t really do that,” Trump said in September 2015. “You ask Israel whether a wall works. A wall properly done, a Trump wall works.” The Israeli company that helped build the Gaza border fence is reportedly interested in the job.

Trump also expressed deeply Islamophobic views during his campaign. He referred to refugees fleeing the Syrian conflict as “one of the great Trojan horses.”[10] He said that he would “strongly consider” shutting down mosques in the United States and would “certainly implement” a database tracking American Muslims.[11] After the November 2015 San Bernardino shooting, he called for a “total and complete shutdown of Muslims entering the United States until our country’s representatives can figure out what is going on.”[12] This comment garnered intense criticism from across the political spectrum and across the globe. Even staunchly hardline figures like former Vice President Dick Cheney expressed dismay, arguing that Trump’s words went “against everything we stand for.”[13]

Trump has sought to justify his calls to ostracize American Muslims by citing a survey conducted by the virulently Islamophobic Center for Security Policy (CSP), a group run by neoconservative ideologue Frank Gaffney. The CSP poll that Trump referenced claims that “25% of [American Muslims] agreed that violence against Americans here in the United States is justified as a part of the global jihad.” It has been widely dismissed by experts as having “dubious” methodology.[14]

Hawkishness

Trump has often espoused hawkish views on U.S. overseas military engagements. He declared that he would “bomb the shit” out of ISIS if elected president. “I’d blow up the pipes, I’d blow up the refineries, I’d blow up every single inch, there would be nothing left,” he exclaimed in November 2015.[15] He also stated that he would deploy U.S. troops on the ground in the fight against ISIS: “I would go in and take the oil and I’d put troops to protect the oil. I would absolutely go and I’d take the money source away. And believe me, they would start to wither and they would collapse.”[16] Trump also argued that “when you get these terrorists, you have to take out their families.”[17]

Trump strongly opposed the landmark July 2015 nuclear between Iran and six world powers. He stated in January 2016: “It’s almost like there has to be something else going on. I don’t think there is, I just don’t think they’re competent.”[18] He derided Secretary of State John Kerry’s performance during the negotiations with Iran, saying that the Iranians look “at him thinking what a schmuck” after he broke his leg while bicycling during the talks.[19]

Trump has also taken aggressive positions with respect to China. He has said that as president he would “immediately” declare China a “currency manipulator.” In a January 2016 interview with the New York Times, he said that he would “tax China on products coming in.” He added: “I would do a tax … [and] the tax should be 45 percent.”[20]

Calls for lowering U.S. overseas commitments

On the other hand, Trump has repeatedly called for limiting U.S. commitments abroad. “From Europe to Asia to the Middle East to trade, he worries about others taking advantage of America’s overextended foreign policy,” writes an analyst for Foreign Policy magazine.[21]

Criticizing former Florida Governor Jeb Bush, a one-time rival for the 2016 GOP nomination, Trump said: “Jeb, why did your brother attack and destabalize [sic] the Middle East by attacking Iraq when there were no weapons of mass destruction?”[22]

Trump also opined that Iraq and Libya were better off before the toppling of their governments through U.S.-led military attacks. “I mean, look at Libya. Look at Iraq. Iraq used to be no terrorists. He (Hussein) would kill the terrorists immediately, which is like now it’s the Harvard of terrorism,” he said in October 2015. “If you look at Iraq from years ago, I’m not saying he was a nice guy, he was a horrible guy, but it was a lot better than it is right now. Right now, Iraq is a training ground for terrorists. Right now Libya, nobody even knows Libya, frankly there is no Iraq and there is no Libya. It’s all broken up. They have no control. Nobody knows what’s going on.”[23]

However, before the presidential race, Trump voiced support for the Iraq war and intervening in Libya. In a 2011 video, Trump called for the U.S. to take out Qaddafi.

Trump has opposed overthrowing Syrian President Bashar al-Assad and argues that the United States should not oppose Russia’s military intervention on behalf of Assad. He said in October 2015: “You have Russia that is now there. Russia is on the side of Assad and Russia wants to get rid of ISIS as much as we do if not more because they don’t want them coming into Russia. And I’m saying, why are we knocking ISIS and yet at the same time, we’re against Assad? Let them fight, take over the remnants but more importantly, let Russia fight ISIS if they want to fight them. Let them fight it.”[24]

Regarding the Russia-Ukraine conflict, Trump has stated: “I don’t like what’s happening with Ukraine. But that’s really a problem that affects Europe a lot more than it affects us. And they should be leading some of this charge.”[25]

He has added: “Where’s Germany? Where are the countries of Europe leading? I don’t mind helping them. I don’t mind being right behind them. I’ll be right behind them.”[26]

In 2013, he also questioned U.S. support for South Korea: “How long will we go on defending South Korea from North Korea without payment? … When will they start to pay us?”[27]

Trump has been equivocal about what he would do with U.S. troops in Afghanistan. He stated in October 2015: “I wouldn’t totally disagree with it except, you know, at some point, are they going to be there for the next 200 years? You know, at some point what’s going on? It’s going to be a long time. I would leave the troops there, begrudgingly”[28]

 

[1] Zeke Miller, “Donald Trump Stumbles on Foreign Policy Knowledge in New Interview,” Time.com, Septebmer 4, 2015, http://time.com/4022603/2016-election-foreign-affairs-international-relations-donald-trump-republican-nomination/.

[2] Twitter, November 22, 2015, https://twitter.com/MaxBoot/status/668447756512456705?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw.

[3] Twitter, December 20, 2015, https://twitter.com/BillKristol/status/678581773832470528?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw.

[4] Justin Raimondo, “The War Party Lost the GOP Debate,” Antiwar, November 13, 2015, http://original.antiwar.com/justin/2015/11/12/the-war-party-lost-the-gop-debate/.

[5] Hrafnkell Haraldsson, “Donald Trump Has Decided Jerusalem is the Capital of Israel – The U.S. Has Not,” Politicususa, January 22, 2016, http://www.politicususa.com/2016/01/22/donald-trump-decided-jerusalem-capital-israel.html.

[6] The Jerusalem Post, “Trump pledges to move US embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem,” January 20, 2016, http://www.jpost.com/US-Elections/Trump-pledges-to-move-US-embassy-from-Tel-Aviv-to-Jerusalem-442091.

[7] Paul Pillar, “What Trump Uncovers,” LobeLog, December 6, 2015, https://lobelog.com/what-trump-uncovers/.

[8] Michelle Ye Hee Lee, “Donald Trump’s false comments connecting Mexican immigrants and crime,” The Washington Post, July 8, 2015, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/fact-checker/wp/2015/07/08/donald-trumps-false-comments-connecting-mexican-immigrants-and-crime/.

[9] Walden Bello, “The Ultimate Blowback from U.S. Foreign Policy? Donald Trump,” Foreign Policy in Focus, January 6, 2016, http://fpif.org/ultimate-blowback-u-s-foreign-policy-donald-trump/.

[10] Eli Clifton, “Obama Rejects GOP’s Islamophobic Statements,” LobeLog, November 16, 2015, https://lobelog.com/obama-rejects-gops-islamophobic-statements/.

[11] Gregory Krieg, “Donald Trump: ‘Strongly consider’ shutting mosques,” CNN, November 16, 2015, http://www.cnn.com/2015/11/16/politics/donald-trump-paris-attacks-close-mosques/.

Vaughn Hillyard, “Donald Trump’s Plan for a Muslim Database Draws Comparison to Nazi Germany,” NBC News, November 20, 2015, http://www.nbcnews.com/politics/2016-election/trump-says-he-would-certainly-implement-muslim-database-n466716.

[12] Jenna Johnson and David Weigel, “Donald Trump calls for ‘total’ ban on Muslims entering United States,” The Washington Post, December 8, 2015, https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2015/12/07/e56266f6-9d2b-11e5-8728-1af6af208198_story.html.

[13] Eli Clifton, “Meet Donald Trump’s Islamophobia Expert,” Foreign Policy, December 8, 2015, http://foreignpolicy.com/2015/12/08/donald-trump-frank-gaffney-islamophobia-poll/?wp_login_redirect=0.

[14] Eli Clifton, “Meet Donald Trump’s Islamophobia Expert,” Foreign Policy, December 8, 2015, http://foreignpolicy.com/2015/12/08/donald-trump-frank-gaffney-islamophobia-poll/?wp_login_redirect=0.

[15] The Daily Beast, ’Trump: I’d ‘Bomb the S**t’ Out of ISIS,” November 12, 2015, http://www.thedailybeast.com/cheats/2015/11/13/7-baby-bodies-found-in-bavarian-home.html.

[16] Tim Mak, “Trump Wants to Re-Invade Iraq; Bomb Things,” The Daily Beast, August 11, 2015, http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2015/08/11/trump-wants-to-re-invade-iraq-bomb-things.html.

[17] Zacg Beauchamp, “Donald Trump said he’d kill terrorists’ families at a rally. His crowd went wild,” Vox, January 25, 2016, http://www.vox.com/2016/1/25/10828770/trump-terrorist-family-appeal.

[18] Elliot Smilowitz, “Trump: Iran deal was so bad it’s suspicious,” The Hill, January 2, 2016, http://thehill.com/blogs/ballot-box/gop-primaries/264598-trump-iran-deal-was-so-bad-its-suspicious.

[19] Real Clear Politics, “Trump: Iran Negotiators Look At John Kerry And Think ‘What A Schmuck,’’” August 26, 2015, http://www.realclearpolitics.com/video/2015/08/26/trump_iran_negotiators_look_at_john_kerry_and_think_what_a_schmuck.html.

[20] Maggie Haberman, “Donald Trump Says He Favors Big Tariffs on Chinese Exports,” The New York Times, January 7, 2016, http://www.nytimes.com/politics/first-draft/2016/01/07/donald-trump-says-he-favors-big-tariffs-on-chinese-exports/.

[21] Alex Ward, “Why Donald Trump Should Be Taken Seriously on Foreign Policy,” Foreign Policy, October 27, 2015, http://foreignpolicy.com/2015/10/27/donald-trump-is-right-about-foreign-policy/.

[22] Alex Ward, “Why Donald Trump Should Be Taken Seriously on Foreign Policy,” Foreign Policy, October 27, 2015, http://foreignpolicy.com/2015/10/27/donald-trump-is-right-about-foreign-policy/.

[23] Jeremy Diamond, “Trump: World would be ‘100%’ better with Hussein, Gadhafi in power,” CNN, October 25, 2015, http://www.cnn.com/2015/10/25/politics/donald-trump-moammar-gadhafi-saddam-hussein/.

[24] CNN, “Interview with Donald Trump,” September 28, 2015, http://www.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/1509/28/ebo.01.html.

[25] Alex Ward, “Why Donald Trump Should Be Taken Seriously on Foreign Policy,” Foreign Policy, October 27, 2015, http://foreignpolicy.com/2015/10/27/donald-trump-is-right-about-foreign-policy/.

[26] Alex Ward, “Why Donald Trump Should Be Taken Seriously on Foreign Policy,” Foreign Policy, October 27, 2015, http://foreignpolicy.com/2015/10/27/donald-trump-is-right-about-foreign-policy/.

[27] Alex Ward, “Why Donald Trump Should Be Taken Seriously on Foreign Policy,” Foreign Policy, October 27, 2015, http://foreignpolicy.com/2015/10/27/donald-trump-is-right-about-foreign-policy/.

[28] Jeremy Diamond, “Yes, Trump did say the Afghanistan war was a mistake,” CNN, October 21, 2015, http://www.cnn.com/2015/10/21/politics/donald-trump-afghanistan-war-mistake/.

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Sources

[1] Eugene Puryear, “The demagogue cometh: The Donald Trump campaign,” Liberation News, July 7, 2015,https://www.liberationnews.org/the-demagogue-commeth-the-donald-trump-campaign/.

[2] Huffington Post, “Donald Trump’s First Major Foreign Policy Speech Is Completely Devoid Of Substance,” March 21, 2016, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/donald-trump-aipac_us_56f044f8e4b09bf44a9e1437.

[3] Michelle Ye Hee Lee, “Donald Trump’s false comments connecting Mexican immigrants and crime,” The Washington Post, July 8, 2015, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/fact-checker/wp/2015/07/08/donald-trumps-false-comments-connecting-mexican-immigrants-and-crime/.

[4] Walden Bello, “The Ultimate Blowback from U.S. Foreign Policy? Donald Trump,” Foreign Policy in Focus, January 6, 2016, http://fpif.org/ultimate-blowback-u-s-foreign-policy-donald-trump/.

[5] Eli Clifton, “Obama Rejects GOP’s Islamophobic Statements,” LobeLog, November 16, 2015,https://lobelog.com/obama-rejects-gops-islamophobic-statements/.

[6] Gregory Krieg, “Donald Trump: ‘Strongly consider’ shutting mosques,” CNN, November 16, 2015,http://www.cnn.com/2015/11/16/politics/donald-trump-paris-attacks-close-mosques/.

Vaughn Hillyard, “Donald Trump’s Plan for a Muslim Database Draws Comparison to Nazi Germany,” NBC News, November 20, 2015, http://www.nbcnews.com/politics/2016-election/trump-says-he-would-certainly-implement-muslim-database-n466716.

[7] Jenna Johnson and David Weigel, “Donald Trump calls for ‘total’ ban on Muslims entering United States,” The Washington Post, December 8, 2015, https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2015/12/07/e56266f6-9d2b-11e5-8728-1af6af208198_story.html.

[8] Eli Clifton, “Meet Donald Trump’s Islamophobia Expert,” Foreign Policy, December 8, 2015,http://foreignpolicy.com/2015/12/08/donald-trump-frank-gaffney-islamophobia-poll/?wp_login_redirect=0.

[9] Eli Clifton, “Meet Donald Trump’s Islamophobia Expert,” Foreign Policy, December 8, 2015,http://foreignpolicy.com/2015/12/08/donald-trump-frank-gaffney-islamophobia-poll/?wp_login_redirect=0.

[10] Zeke Miller, “Donald Trump Stumbles on Foreign Policy Knowledge in New Interview,” Time.com, Septebmer 4, 2015,http://time.com/4022603/2016-election-foreign-affairs-international-relations-donald-trump-republican-nomination/.

[11] Justin Raimondo, “The War Party Lost the GOP Debate,” Antiwar, November 13, 2015,http://original.antiwar.com/justin/2015/11/12/the-war-party-lost-the-gop-debate/.

[12] Twitter, December 20, 2015, https://twitter.com/BillKristol/status/678581773832470528?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw.

[13] Twitter, November 22, 2015, https://twitter.com/MaxBoot/status/668447756512456705?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw.

[14] The Daily Beast, ’Trump: I’d ‘Bomb the S**t’ Out of ISIS,” November 12, 2015,http://www.thedailybeast.com/cheats/2015/11/13/7-baby-bodies-found-in-bavarian-home.html.

[15] Tim Mak, “Trump Wants to Re-Invade Iraq; Bomb Things,” The Daily Beast, August 11, 2015,http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2015/08/11/trump-wants-to-re-invade-iraq-bomb-things.html.

[16] Zacg Beauchamp, “Donald Trump said he’d kill terrorists’ families at a rally. His crowd went wild,” Vox, January 25, 2016, http://www.vox.com/2016/1/25/10828770/trump-terrorist-family-appeal.

[17] Elliot Smilowitz, “Trump: Iran deal was so bad it’s suspicious,” The Hill, January 2, 2016, http://thehill.com/blogs/ballot-box/gop-primaries/264598-trump-iran-deal-was-so-bad-its-suspicious.

[18] Real Clear Politics, “Trump: Iran Negotiators Look At John Kerry And Think ‘What A Schmuck,’’” August 26, 2015,http://www.realclearpolitics.com/video/2015/08/26/trump_iran_negotiators_look_at_john_kerry_and_think_what_a_schmuck.html.

[19] Hrafnkell Haraldsson, “Donald Trump Has Decided Jerusalem is the Capital of Israel – The U.S. Has Not,” Politicususa, January 22, 2016, http://www.politicususa.com/2016/01/22/donald-trump-decided-jerusalem-capital-israel.html.

[20] The Jerusalem Post, “Trump pledges to move US embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem,” January 20, 2016,http://www.jpost.com/US-Elections/Trump-pledges-to-move-US-embassy-from-Tel-Aviv-to-Jerusalem-442091.

[21] Paul Pillar, “What Trump Uncovers,” LobeLog, December 6, 2015, https://lobelog.com/what-trump-uncovers/.

[22] Maggie Haberman, “Donald Trump Says He Favors Big Tariffs on Chinese Exports,” The New York Times, January 7, 2016, http://www.nytimes.com/politics/first-draft/2016/01/07/donald-trump-says-he-favors-big-tariffs-on-chinese-exports/.

[23] Alex Ward, “Why Donald Trump Should Be Taken Seriously on Foreign Policy,” Foreign Policy, October 27, 2015,http://foreignpolicy.com/2015/10/27/donald-trump-is-right-about-foreign-policy/.

[24] Alex Ward, “Why Donald Trump Should Be Taken Seriously on Foreign Policy,” Foreign Policy, October 27, 2015,http://foreignpolicy.com/2015/10/27/donald-trump-is-right-about-foreign-policy/.

[25] Alex Ward, “Why Donald Trump Should Be Taken Seriously on Foreign Policy,” Foreign Policy, October 27, 2015,http://foreignpolicy.com/2015/10/27/donald-trump-is-right-about-foreign-policy/.

[26] Jeremy Diamond, “Trump: World would be ‘100%’ better with Hussein, Gadhafi in power,” CNN, October 25, 2015,http://www.cnn.com/2015/10/25/politics/donald-trump-moammar-gadhafi-saddam-hussein/.

[27] CNN, “Interview with Donald Trump,” September 28, 2015, http://www.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/1509/28/ebo.01.html.

[28] Alex Ward, “Why Donald Trump Should Be Taken Seriously on Foreign Policy,” Foreign Policy, October 27, 2015,http://foreignpolicy.com/2015/10/27/donald-trump-is-right-about-foreign-policy/.

[29] Alex Ward, “Why Donald Trump Should Be Taken Seriously on Foreign Policy,” Foreign Policy, October 27, 2015,http://foreignpolicy.com/2015/10/27/donald-trump-is-right-about-foreign-policy/.

[30] Alex Ward, “Why Donald Trump Should Be Taken Seriously on Foreign Policy,” Foreign Policy, October 27, 2015,http://foreignpolicy.com/2015/10/27/donald-trump-is-right-about-foreign-policy/.

[31] Jeremy Diamond, “Yes, Trump did say the Afghanistan war was a mistake,” CNN, October 21, 2015,http://www.cnn.com/2015/10/21/politics/donald-trump-afghanistan-war-mistake/.

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