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Tracking militarists’ efforts to influence U.S. foreign policy

Unification Church

Unification Church

Acronym/Code: UCM

Updated: 5/89

Categories:Political, Religious.

Background: The Unification Church (UC) is the tentacular creation of the Rev. Sun Myung Moon. Formally known as the Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity, the church was founded by Moon in 1954. (35) The church–and Moon himself–sit at the theological center of a web of industrial and business enterprises, political and cultural organizations, media institutes and press organs, educational branches, and religious groups. These offshoots are designed to appeal to different sectors of society and perform assorted functions in the battle between "Godism" and communism. The Unification Church has been widely criticized as a cult, and its subsidiaries frequently disguise their links to the church, at least for new members.

Church members are often called "Moonies," a derogatory term which draws attention to the reverence held for Moon, considered by most church members to be the incarnation of the Second Coming of the messiah. (62) Divine Principle, the official doctrinal document of the Unification Church, claims that Moon is a messenger sent from God who is to bring a "new, ultimate, final truth" to "resolve the fundamental questions of life and the universe." The doctrine notes that the second messiah-required because Jesus Christ did not complete his task on earth–would be born in "none other than Korea," Moon’s birthplace, between l917 and l930. Moon was born in l920. (62)

Investigative reporters Scott and Jon Lee Anderson describe Unification theology as "a potpourri of Christianity, Confucianism, mysticism, patriotism, anti-communism, and Moon’s own megalomania. In Moon’s eyes, Christ technically falls into the category of a failure, for although he established a spiritual kingdom, he didn’t establish a physical or political one. Moon is here to rectify that oversight; he is anointed as the man to complete Jesus’ original mission."(1)

Although there were UC missionaries in the United States since 1959 and church front groups operating by the early 1960s, Moon himself did not come to the U.S. until 1971. (67) By 1982, Moon had been convicted for tax evasion, conspiracy, obstruction of justice, and perjury–all related to fraudulent tax returns filed from 1973-1975. (11) He was subsequently imprisoned for 13 months at Danbury, Connecticut Federal Prison. The response of the UC was to launch a $30 million campaign to sanitize Moon’s image and to present his case to the public as an infringement of religious freedom. (23) Clergy of all faiths from around the country were provided all-expense-paid trips to the nation’s capitol to attend major rallies in Moon’s defense. A $4. 5 million mail project distributed pamphlets, books, and videocassettes on Unification theology to more than 300,000 ministers across the United States. (23) Such activities–and particularly the support of groups like the American Civil Liberties Union, the Presbyterian Church USA, the National Association of Evangelicals, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, Jerry Falwell’s Moral Majority, and even the liberal National Council of Churches–served UC efforts to legitimize itself in the mainstream of public opinion. (11,23)

The church has also developed financial and professional ties with conservative organizations, such as the Conservative Alliance (CALL), a project of the late Terry Dolan’s National Conservative Political Action Committee, or NCPAC. It has also done outreach to scholars, journalists, and political figures. (37) Moreover, the UC recruits conservatives with impeccable credentials for many of its own offshoots. For example, the Washington Institute for Values in Public Policy in 1984 had a board of trustees which included former members of Congress, professors from Columbia University and the University of Maryland, and David Carliner, a former counselor with the American Civil Liberties Union. (37) Each of these relationships has served the UC’s campaign for legitimacy.

These inroads into the conservative political community have not gone without criticism from some sectors. According to Neal Blair, president of the Free the Eagle conservative lobby,"The Unification Church is trying to buy its way into the conservative movement."(37) Similarly, after it was discovered that CAUSA had provided major financing to CALL, many conservative activists withdrew from the organization. (47) "In politics," observed leading New Right activist and tactician Paul Weyrich,"there is very little money given without something being asked in return."(47)

The church and its enterprises have both theological and political significance, but the latter will take precedence in this Resource Center profile. In this regard, it is worth quoting at length from Michael McKale’s piece on CAUSA: "Much of the reporting on the Unification Church has tended to focus on its recruitment methods and its "cult" mentality. I believe this is far less significant than its political activities. I also believe such reporting frequently offers a very distorted picture of the `moonies. ‘ The majority of the members of the Unification Church who I have spoken with are quite sincere in their religious beliefs and are dedicated to a higher ideal of human solidarity. I believe, however, that the authoritarian structure of the church, its ultra-right-wing and anti-communist position on foreign policy, and its support for the contras in Nicaragua make the CAUSA wing of the church very dangerous."(23)

The political activities of the church and its offshoots, however, do have their roots in certain of Moon’s religious doctrines. Divine Principle predicts an "inevitable" third world war during which the democratic world, associated with God’s forces, will overwhelm communism, considered to be a manifestation of the forces of Satan. This war will be carried out either by "force of arms or an ideological battle."(62,67)

Master Speaks is a collection of speeches by Moon which further reveals Moon’s political ambitions."My dream," according to a l973 speech,"is to organize a Christian political party including all the Protestant denominations, Catholic, and all the religious sects. We can embrace the religious world in one arm and the political world in the other… . The whole world is in my hand, and I will conquer and subjugate the world."(62) In one of those speeches, Moon advocated "an automatic theocracy to rule the world." Such a theocracy, he declared meant that .".. we cannot separate the political field from the religious… . Separation between religion and politics is what Satan likes most."(67)

Moon has been explicit about his plan to "unify" the world under a global theocracy and his opposition to constitutional democracy. (46,58) Alan Tate Wood, a former high official in the church, quoted Moon as saying that "God is phasing out democracy."(67) Wood testified to Congress that Moon told followers in 1970 that the U.S. was to come under UC dominance."Part of our strategy," Moon said,"must be to make friends in the FBI, the CIA, and the police forces, the military and business community… as a means of entering the political arena, influencing foreign policy, and ultimately of establishing absolute dominion over the American people."(46) The same holds for the Soviet Union. As Moon’s top lieutenant, South Korean Col. Bo Hi Pak, told Conservative Digest, the Rev. Moon "would like to liberate Moscow by the year 2000."(61)

In an interview with Ken Ellis, a producer for KQED-TV in San Francisco, Bo Hi Pak demonstrated the siege mentality and political strategy of the church leadership."We want to awaken the world," Pak said."We want to turn the tide [so] that this totalitarian, godless system must go… . It is a total war. Basically a war of ideas. War of minds. The battlefield of the human mind. This is where the battle is fought. So in this war, the entire things [sic] will be mobilized: political means, social means, economical means and propagandistic means."(37)

The UC has been described as a "multinational conglomerate of business, political, and cultural organizations."(34) This is in keeping with Moon’s prescription for global consolidation. In June 1983, he told a church group that four things were needed for such a Unification to take place: ideology, economy, science and technology, and journalism."(34) As a consequence, UC’s many affiliates, offshoots, and fronts reflect these priorities and include the organizations and enterprises listed below. In 1982, the Moon-owned New York Tribune said that there were more than 100 Unification Church front groups. (1)

CAUSA is a major political arm of the Unification Church. (5) CAUSA Intl was founded in Washington DC in 1980 by Rev. Moon, following a series of meetings by Bo Hi Pak with important rightwing Latin American military and political leaders. (50,67) Kim Sang In was also involved in founding the organization. (1) A nonprofit entity, CAUSA is–according to the group–"based on the belief that positive social change can only occur when God-accepting and conscientious people are united upon common goals."(50) The organization has branches in at least twenty-one countries in the Western Hemisphere and Europe. It also operates in Latin America, Asia, and Africa. (6,23) CAUSA’s name was originally the "Confederation of Associations for the Unification of the Societies of the Americas."(11,23) The word "Unification" has since been changed to "Unity," however, apparently to distance CAUSA from the church. (67) The group is now generally known simply as CAUSA, or "Cause" in Spanish. (23) The "cause" according to CAUSA director Joe Tully, is "the defeat of communism."(28)

Reflecting Unification Church theology, CAUSA promotes "unificationism" or "godism"–a comprehensive world view that seeks to unify world religions against communism. (12) According to the lecture manual of CAUSA,"Godism" was developed by Moon "through extraordinary communication with God."(62) McKale observes that CAUSA was founded in order to combat communism both theoretically and in practice, to offer a positive philosophy to use in the ideological war against communism, and to conduct an educational program in a global battle against communism and communist influences. (23)

CAUSA USA was incorporated in 1983. (23,48,67) Like the international organization, the U.S. branch of CAUSA sees itself as having an educational function. It describes itself as a group of "volunteers working to present a new ideological perspective for democracy and the free world."(48) It claims 25,000 members in the U.S. and has chapters in all 50 states, with 11 regional groups. (48)

The Association for the Unification of Latin America was formed in Rome in December 1984. It has sponsored conferences attended by important political leaders from Latin America and has done outreach to the Vatican. (67)

CARP, or the Collegiate Association for the Research of Principles, is the university branch of the Unification Church. (45) There is some uncertainty about the founding date of the movement, but it was functioning in the Far East by 1966. It became active in Europe and the U.S. only after that date. (45) Originally, the acronym CARP signified Collegiate Association for the Research of the Divine Principle, a reference to the revelation of Sun Myung Moon, known as the Divine Principle. (45) According to Ed Mignot, who spent three years working as a teacher within the Unification Church, most CARP members are not university students, at least in the United States. Mignot contends that in the U.S. , the bulk of university students who join CARP are required to leave school in order to devote their efforts to church projects and fundraising. (45) Mignot also asserts that CARP is a front for the church and that its real function is not to promote morality and spirituality, as it claims. Mignot says that CARP is designed to promote and spread Unificationism and to recruit members for itself and for the church. (45)

The Committee to Defend the U.S. Constitution and the American Constitution Committee (ACC) are two components of the U. C. organization in the United States. The latter was set up in the mid-1980s and has chapters in all 50 states, staffed by members of the old CAUSA field network. (49) Fred Clarkson, a longtime researcher on the Unification Church, describes the ACC as "warmed-over CAUSA."(49) He notes that the regional officers who once represented CAUSA are now the ACC officers and suggests that, for the most part, CAUSA will not be so visible at the local level anymore. (49)

The Committee to Defend the U.S. Constitution was established, according to the group’s statement of purpose,"to pursue the founding ideals of America… . [and] to defend and uphold freedom in whatever way we can."(66) Its early work concentrated on opposing Moon’s conviction on tax evasion charges and on building support for the Unification leader by placing ads claiming that his imprisonment constituted a violation of religious freedom. (11,54,66) The committee claims to be unconnected to the UC organization. It is headed, however, by Warren Richardson, an individual with longterm ties to the UC. He was CAUSA USA’s first executive director and has been attorney and business agent for the Washington Times. (11) Moreover, James M. Gavin was the editor of Victory for Freedom, a special publication put out by the committee to protest Rev. Moon’s tax fraud imprisonment. (66)

The U.S. Global Strategy Council was established with the help of former deputy CIA director Ray Cline. The council is designed to advise the government on foreign policy matters. (1) The International Federation for Victory Over Communism is the original political arm of the Unification Church. (59) It was founded in 1968 in Seoul. (67) Its U.S. affiliate, the Freedom Leadership Foundation (FLF) was established in 1969 in Washington DC (67) For the most part, the FLF is no longer active, with CAUSA assuming most of its political functions. (67)

The International Relief Friendship Foundation (IRFF) was started in 1976 with a $225,000 grant from the Unification Church. (33) The IRFF acts as a humanitarian aid arm of the church. (33)

CAUSA International’s affiliates include the Freedom Leadership Forum, Freedom Research Foundation, Korean Cultural Freedom Foundation, Little Angels of Korea Folk Ballet, Little Angels Schools Foundation, One World Crusade, and Radio Free Asia. (23).

The church has many business enterprises as well. Tong Il Co. Ltd manufactures weapons and machine parts in South Korea. (34) Other UC business enterprises include the Il Hwa Co. Ltd (S. Korea), Il Shin Stoneworks (S. Korea), Hankook Titanium Co. Ltd. (S. Korea), Happy World Inc (Japan), Unification Church Intl, McLean (a holding company including Intl Oceanic Enterprises Inc. , Intl Seafood Corp Inc, newspapers, tuna fleets, fish-processing plants, and boat-building, televisionproduction, and other enterprises in the United States), One Up Enterprises (U.S. ), News World Communications (U.S. ) and the Washington Times (U.S. ). (34)

The Intl Conference on the Unity of the Sciences (ICUS) and the Professors World Peace Academy are offshoots of the Moonfunded Intl Cultural Foundation (ICF). (3,37) Based in New York City, the ICF is an umbrella organization for church academic programs and projects involved in studying values and science. (37,56)

Other projects of the Unification movement include: Assembly of World Religions, Free Press Intl, Interdenominatonal Conferences for Clergy, Intl Clergy and Laity United in Shared Action, Intl Highway Project, Isshin Hospital (Tokyo), Ocean Church, Project Volunteer, Religious Youth Service, Won Hwa Do-The Unified Martial Art, World Media Association, World Student Service Corps, Korean Evangelical Association, Intl Leadership Seminar, and the Unification Theological Seminary. (3)

Media enterprises are important components of the UC’s international political efforts. The Washington Times, a conservative news daily in Washington DC , is owned by News World Communications, a for-profit holding company which is owned by church officials. The newspaper was established in l982. Another newspaper owned by the Unification Church is The New York City Tribune. Insight, a national news magazine, is product of the Moon organization and is also owned by News World Communications. (61) The World and I is an encyclopedic monthly magazine, running to some 700 pages, which is produced by the organization. (45) Noticias Del Mundo is a Spanish-language newspaper published by the UC organization. (3) The World Media Association is a nonprofit international consortium of individuals and organizations in media which is sponsored by News World Communications. (26)

The church claims more than two million adherents globally, with some 30,000 to 40,000 in the United States. (47) Former church members say the figures for the U.S. branch are exaggerated. (47) At any rate, it is believed that recruitment in the U.S. has "slowed to a trickle. (34)

Funding: A 1978 report by a House of Representatives subcommittee concluded that UC funding in the United States came from domestic businesses, church-fundraising, and "funds from outside the United States, the ultimate source of which was undetermined."(34,70) Mobil fund-raising teams (MFTs)–small groups of UC members who travel from city to city selling trinkets, candy, and flowers–also provide financing for church political and cultural activities. They are expected to bring in at least $100 per day according to ex-members. (37) In 1984, Mose Durst, president of the Unification Church, said the church raised more than $20 million in the U.S. each year. (37)

In 1984, two former high-level church officials said that the Japanese branch of the UC had transferred at least $800 million into the U.S. over the preceding nine years in order to finance church political and business activities. (34) According to the two officials–Yoshikazu Soejima and Hiroaki Inoue–the Japanese branch generated its money primarily through Happy World Inc, an import business that sold marble vases, miniature pagodas, and other icons that were said to have miraculous powers. These religious artifacts are sold by UC members. (34) Soejima said that the Japanese church earned about $122 million in 1982, 90 percent of which was shipped abroad. (34) Many UCwatchers have questioned the likelihood that sales of religious artifacts, flowers, and so on could result in such large volumes of money. (1)

The Washington Times was targeted as a major recipient of the funds sent into the U.S. from foreign church holdings. (34) It has been reported that the Washington Times has been subsidized by the South African government for $900,000 annually. (1)

Ryiochi Sasakawa, a "Class A" Japanese World War II war criminal and head of the Japanese branch of the World AntiCommunist League, helps fund the Unification Church. (67)

The four South Korean business enterprises mentioned above (see Background) had estimated total assets of $198 million in 1983. (34) At least as of 1984, U.S. Foods Corp. , a subsidiary of Unification Church Intl, McLean (UCI), collected $497,310 per year from the Washington DC government for office space leased to city agencies. (34)

During the early 1970s, the American Youth for a Just Peace received "anonymous" donations from "friends of the President" [Richard Nixon] through connections with Charles Colson and Jeb Magruder. (67)

Intl Cultural Foundation: In 1986, the ICF had revenues amounting to $6,956,518 (of which $6,488,128 were in the form of gifts, grants, and other contributions) and expenses of $6,705,991. During that fiscal year the ICF provided contributions of various types to the Washington Institute for Values in Public Policy ($1,535,348), the Intl Conference for the Unity of Science ($1,374,372), Intl Seminars on the Unification Movement ($116,855), and other, unnamed organizations ($1,325,500). (56) From 1982 to 1985, the ICF received gifts, grants, and contributions totalling $18,237,701. (56)

Intl Relief Friendship Foundation: According to the IRFF’s director, 90 percent of the annual budget of the organization still came from the UC as of 1985. (33) CAUSA Intl has also provided support to IRFF. In 1985, CAUSA Intl paid $3000 to ship IRFF materials to Honduras. (33)

Tong Il Industries is 53 percent owned by the Unification Church. Tong Il is the major investor in the Washington Times. (58)

As of 1984, the church was spending $1. 5 million a year on the Washington Institute for Values in Public Policy. (37)

Activities: The Unification Church and its many offshoots conduct a broad range of cultural and political projects. These include academic conferences, fact-finding trips for journalists and opinion leaders, humanitarian assistance programs, seminars in anticommunism and Unification theology, and production of various publications. The UC organization also engages in electoral activities and lobbying. It has provided logistical and financial support to political campaigns (e. g. in France, Brazil, Japan, and the U.S. ) and to groups involved in assorted political activities. (67)

During the 1970s, Moon and other officials of the Unification Church gained notoriety for a variety of activities, including their support for the beleaguered presidency of Richard Nixon. At that time, they held prayer breakfasts and rallies in Nixon’s support. (37) In 1973, Moon joined Neil Salonen–an important figure in Moon enterprises–on the steps of the Capitol in a three-day fast and prayer vigil asking God not to allow Richard Nixon’s impeachment. (1) Young female members of the church were sent to infiltrate congressional offices as well, and the church was found to have extensive "operational ties" with the Korean Central Intelligence Agency. According to a 1978 congressional report (the so-called "Fraser report"), these activities were part of the UC’s efforts to gain influence in the U.S. government. (37)

Church offshoots have engaged in lobbying Congress. According to Alan Tate Wood, former president of the Freedom Leadership Foundation, the UC’s American Youth for a Just Peace carried out an extensive lobbying campaign with Congress in 1970 to try to show "strong grassroots support for a hard line in Vietnam."(67) Tate noted that the church kept its involvement with the organization hidden because the UC’s tax-exempt status would have been threatened by lobbying activities. (67)

CARP conducts study sessions to investigate moral and political questions and principles. It carries out various programs designed to recruit students, including conducting opinion polls, hosting theme dinners, sponsoring guest speakers, and so on. (2,45) At the University of New Mexico (UNM), for instance, CARP holds weekly video showings that deal with issues such as Central America (anti-Sandinista) and world peace. The UNM group also sponsors social events and recruits college students from campuses to work in Guatemala on summer work brigades. (2)

CAUSA USA considers that its purpose is to "point out the lies and deceptions of communism, its theory and practice," and to "offer a positive philosophy for God-accepting people."(48) It therefore "seeks to develop an ideological offensive" throughout the United States which is designed to counter the "influence and expansion" of communism. (48) The group organizes conferences and seminars on communist ideology. These conferences promote "Godism" as an alternative to communism. (23,37,47) CAUSA USA also creates grassroots organizations in order to promote its anticommunist worldview. In addition, it runs a speakers bureau, supports voter registration and clean-up campaigns, conducts national and local leadership seminars, publishes the CAUSA USA Report, and coordinates the CAUSA Ministerial Alliance. (23,48) One of its programs is the CAUSA Veterans Association. (48)

CAUSA USA has organized expense-paid seminars and conferences for congressional staff members, Hispanic Americans, and conservative activists. (37,47) In 1985, about 10,000 people (mostly clergy) were recruited to attend all-expense paid CAUSA USA indoctrination conferences. (11) The group has financed trips by Latin American journalists and political leaders to Seoul, South Korea. (47) According to Silvio Arguello–a businessman from Miami who was attempting to establish a pro-contra

Nicaraguan exile group–CAUSA USA also held conferences for Nicaraguan exiles and other Hispanics in Washington DC and Fort Lauderdale, Florida. (47)

CAUSA Intl began its work in Latin America in 1980. (23) From 1980 to 1982, the organization’s major activity was the organization of anticommunist seminars for political, military, and other influential groups throughout Latin America. (67)

The Freedom Leadership Foundation is another, though less active, political arm of the church. In 1984, it paid for a fact-finding tour to Central America for four Republican Senate staff members–including aides to Sens. Steve Symms (R-Idaho), Robert W. Kasten Jr. (R-WI), and William L. Armstrong (R-CO). They met with government leaders and officials of the U.S. Embassy in Guatemala and Honduras and joined the official U.S. delegation to observe the Salvadoran elections. (37)

The Intl Conference for the Unity of Science (ICUS) conducts annual conferences which promote interdisciplinary and international dialogues on issues concerning values and science. (56)

The Intl Security Council organizes retired military officers of the Western Alliance. It also sponsors anticommunist conferences. (67)

The Intl Seminars on the Unification Movement (ISUM) consist of seminars which describe the ideas and activities of the Unification movement. (56)

The Washington Institute for Values in Public Policy is a think tank sponsored by the UC organization. Based in Washington DC and founded by Moon in 1983, the institute conducts research, forums, and seminars, and produces publications. (37,43) It underwrites research and seminars at such institutions as the University of Chicago, the Institute for Energy Analysis (Oak Ridge, TN), and Stanford University. (37)

The World Media Association and News World Communications, both founded by Moon, co-sponsor the annual World Media Conference. (26) At the 1986 conference, the World Media Association presented its ethics award for journalism to two individuals. The FIEJ Golden Pen of Freedom went to Pedro J. Chamorro Barrios, former codirector and editor of Nicaragua’s opposition paper, La Prensa. (26) News World Communications Inc publishes The Washington Times, the New York City Tribune, Noticias del Mundo (New York), Insight magazine, and The World and I (monthly). It also operates the weekly Middle East Times and the Free Press Intl news service. (26)

The World Media Association is an intl consortium of organizations and individuals. It is nonprofit and is sponsored by News World Communications. Its projects include the World Media Conference, fact-finding tours, publications, and a special projects fund for research, scholarships, and publications. (26) It sponsors fact-finding tours in "crucial areas of the world" for members of the media and opinion leaders. It pays all expenses for participants and has sponsored tours to Cambodia, China, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, the Philippines, Thailand, Japan, South Korea, the Soviet Union, Taiwan, and West Germany. (26)

Afghanistan: Lee Shapiro (see below) was killed in October 1987 while taking film footage in strategic areas along the Afghan-Soviet border. Shapiro was working with a $250,000 (another source says $300,000) grant from CAUSA and additional funds from the Bradley and Olin foundations. (27,58)

Angola: CAUSA Intl has provided assistance to Jonas Savimbi’s UNITA, which has been trying to overthrow the Marxist Angolan government. (23)

Argentina: CAUSA was established in this country in 1981. The group’s first seminar had the backing of Archbishop Antonio Plaza of La Plata. (23)

Bolivia: CAUSA has run training seminars for the Bolivian military at the La Paz Military Academy. (23)

Brazil: CAUSA has held banquets, conferences, and training seminars for military, media, educational, and political leaders. (23) The UC organization apparently provided logistical and/or financial support to 57 candidates in the 1986 congressional elections in Brazil. (58,67) The Independent (London, Oct 8, 1986) reported that these contributions were part of a UC effort to build a neofascist political party in Brazil similar to the French National Front. (58,67)

Cambodia: On a 1984 tour to Southeast Asia, the World Media Association took participants to a refugee camp where they met with Gen. Dien Del, vice president of the Khmer People’s National Liberation Front. (26)

Guatemala: CAUSA first set up its office in Guatemala in 1982 under the regime of evangelical Gen. Efrain Rios Montt. (1) At a June 1983 CAUSA World Media Conference held in Guatemala City, conference participants called for "the constitution of a regional army of three million soldiers" to resolve the Central American crisis. There were some 250 participants, mostly owners or editors of newspapers. (36) Based in Guatemala, conference participants traveled throughout the Central American region, meeting with military and business leaders in Costa Rica, El Salvador, and Honduras. (1) World Student Service Corps Inc. , a CAUSA group, has sent $30,000 in medical supplies to Guatemala. (10) CARP, working in conjunction with the World Student Service Corps, has sent volunteer work brigades to San Pedro and Santiago Atitlan to build community centers. (57)

Honduras: The Intl Relief Friendship Foundation has provided clothing, food, and medicine to Nicaraguan Miskito Indian refugees in Honduras. (33,37,44) According to the IRFF director (as of 1985), CAUSA Intl had paid to fly one of the former organization’s shipments to Honduras. (33) In Honduras, IRFF has provided assistance to refugees directly along the border with Honduras, rather than in the internationallysponsored camps further inland. IRFF’s work has thus been criticized by relief workers and U.S. congressional staff members for effectively maintaining MISURA (an Indian contra faction) military base camps. (33) In 1984, the IRFF shipped 1000 pounds of clothing, almost seven tons of food, and medical supplies to Miskito refugees along the border. (37) It has provided some of this material aid–including medicines, food, and clothing–to Friends of the Americas, a private humanitarian assistance organization which has supported the Nicaraguan contras and their families. (65)

Edgar Chamorro, a former leader of the largest contra group–the FDN–said that 200 CAUSA members visited two contra camps in Honduras during 1983 or 1984. He said they did not come with aid but with "propaganda."(35) CAUSA has also sent food, clothing, toys, blankets, canvas for tents, and medicines to Nicaraguan refugees in Honduras. (35,44,75) As of mid-1985, CAUSA had sent an estimated $1 million in aid to the area, according to director E. David Woellner. (75) A field kitchen was included among the donations. (75)

CERT (Christian Emergency Relief Team) International, an evangelical Christian assistance operation, took over CAUSA’s humanitarian aid programs around 1987. CERT has been supported by the American Freedom Coalition, a political group with multiple links to the Unification Church, CAUSA, and the American Constitution Committee. (15,49,62,72,73,74)

CAUSA began working with the Nicaraguan revolutionaries based in Honduras in 1981 and has been a large supplier of humanitarian assistance to the contras (see also Nicaragua below). (71) Fernando ("El Negro") Chamorro, a contra leader, said that CAUSA representatives sent him on an all-expense paid trip to the United States in 1981. He was to try to unify Nicaraguan exile groups on the journey. (44) CAUSA airlifted supplies to the contras immediately after Congress first cut off aid. (12) In the past, contra fighters have been seen wearing red CAUSA T-shirts, and CAUSA has provided cash and other aid to the rebels. (44) CAUSA paid $11,000 for the rent and phone bills of the Tegucigalpa headquarters of the Misura contra faction when the leaders of that Indian rebel group were not able to pay their bills. (1,53)

CAUSA USA has made contributions to rightwing businessmen and military officers in Honduras. (47)

CAUSA maintains an office in Tegucigalpa from which it sponsors educational forums in Honduras and El Salvador. Many of Honduras’ leading intellectuals have participated in these forums which focus on education about the Marxist-Leninist threat in the Americas. After a large CAUSA conference in San Pedro Sula several years ago, the organization has concentrated more on small seminars with important sectors of the population, including businesses, community groups, and the military. These seminars purport to teach people how to recognize and fight communism while maintaining democratic freedoms. (71)

The World Student Service Corps, a CAUSA affiliate, was planning (as of 1988) to establish orphanages on the outskirts of Tegucigalpa within the next year or two. (71)

The World Media Association sponsored a 1983 tour to Central America for journalists from 55 countries. One of the areas they visited was a strip along the Honduran border with Nicaragua where they met with a leader of the Nicaraguan contras and visited a camp for Nicaraguan refugees. (26)

Nicaragua: CAUSA has been a supporter of the Nicaraguan rebel forces known as the contras (see also Honduras above). CAUSA contributed money to Phil Mabry to set up a taxfree organization for humanitarian aid for the contras. (7) The Washington Times sponsored the Nicaraguan Freedom Fund (NFF see separate GroupWatch profile) which planned to raise $14 million in aid to the contras. Bo Hi Pak donated $100,000 to launch the project. (23) The NFF was in existence only for four months, from May 8, 1985 to September 9, 1985. (39) It is now inactive but maintains its 501(c)(3) tax-exempt status by filing copies of its 1985 tax return each year with the Internal Revenue Service. (39,65)

CAUSA provided funding for an anti-Sandinista documentary on the Miskito Indians produced by film-maker Lee Shapiro, a graduate of Moon’s Unification Theological Seminary. The documentary–called "Nicaragua Was Our Home"–was shown on public television in the United States. (27) Shapiro presented a rushed version of the film to the 1984 U. N. Human Rights Commission meeting in Geneva in 1984. (53) Investigative reporter Karen Branan has criticized Shapiro’s film for a number of reasons, including the film-maker’s claim that he observed a battle which Branan contends never actually occurred. (77)

Paraguay: CAUSA has held seminars for the Paraguayan military and government officials. (23)

Philippines: In the Philippines, CAUSA is helping to set up civilian vigilante groups, elect local rightwing officials, and influence public opinion regarding the U.S. bases negotiations. (52) The Special Operations Teams (SOTs) of the Philippine Army use a manual prepared by CAUSA Intl for their anticommunist lectures. The SOTs are counterinsurgency squads which use political and psychological methods–including anticommunist propaganda–to win the "hearts and minds" of Filipino peasants. (55) A CAUSA affiliate, the Asian Ecumenical Inter-Faith Council itinerated Father Bismarck Carballo for a speaking tour in the Philippines in August 1986. Carballo was an opposition clergyman in Nicaragua who at one time was evicted by the Sandinista government. (8) In October, 1986, CAUSA held a National Security Conference in the country that was attended by Ray Cline and John Singlaub, both experts on counterinsurgency strategy and low intensity conflict. (8)

Uruguay: CAUSA held its first seminar in Uruguay in 1980. (23) Julian Safi, a rightwing journalist with business and media links to the military government, was named head of CAUSA in the country. Under Safi, CAUSA started a newspaper, Noticias del Mundo, purchased Banco de Credito–Uruguay’s third or fourth largest bank–bought the country’s largest printing press, and took over the Victory Plaza, the country’s largest luxury hotel. Safi also took over ownership of Kami Ltd. , a holding company in the Grand Cayman Islands, allowing him and CAUSA access to international financial markets without undergoing government scrutiny. (23,34) As of 1984, the church had invested more than $460 million in the country. (34)

Government Connections: Bo Hi Pak, Kim Sang In, and San Kook Han (Han Sang Keuk) were officers in the Korean Army during the 1950s. They joined the UC during this period. Each became top officials in the Korean CIA (KCIA) following the 1961 coup which brought Gen. Park Chun Hee into power. (58)

Han Sang Kil was a military attache at the Korean embassy in Washington DC during the late 1960s. He was apparently linked to the KCIA. (67,70) He became Moon’s personal secretary and tutor to his children after leaving the service of the Korean government. (67,70)

During the 1960s and early 1970s, Bo Hi Pak was reportedly KCIA liaison to the U.S. intelligence community when he was stationed in Washington DC as Korea’s military attache. (58,67)

Kim Sang In was formerly the Korean CIA Station Chief in Mexico City. (10,58) In Mexico City, he was the "control agent" for Tungsun Park, according to congressional investigators of the so-called Koreagate scandal. Koreagate consisted of a number of illegal operations, including Park’s bribery of U.S. officials in order to benefit the South Korean government. The resulting congressional report (the "Fraser report") found that the UC had carried out illegal espionage activities for the KCIA during the course of these operations. (58,70)

KCIA founder Kim Jong Pil said in 1961 that he intended to "organize and utilize" the UC as a "political tool."(67,70) Among the Moon fronts which worked in collaboration with the KCIA were the Korean Cultural Freedom Foundation (KCFF) and the Radio of Free Asia. (67,70) Bo Hi Pak, then a military attache at the Korean Embassy in Washington, ran the KCFF during the time of its organization in the mid-1960s. (67) At the same time, he was one of the top operatives of the UC and was using the KCFF for church business. (67)

San Kook Han (Han Sang Keuk) was a "personal assistant" to KCIA chief Kim Jong Pil in the early 1960s. (58,67) He later served as protocol officer for the Prime Minister and as ambassador to Norway. Under dictator Chun Doo Wan, he was ambassador to Panama. His appointment by the UC to the Washington Times led to the resignation of Times editor James Whelan. Whelan described Han as the "defacto publisher" and "inspector general" of the newspaper. (58)

Two Japanese prime ministers, Nakasone and Nobusuke Kishi, appealed to President Reagan to pardon Moon when he was imprisoned for tax fraud. Kishi was imprisoned as a war criminal with Sasakawa and Kodama. (67)

Oliver North assisted Phil Mabry in the establishment of the pro-contra organization mentioned above. (7)

Phillip Sanchez is former ambassador to Honduras and Colombia. (1,13,54) Like Dan Graham, Sanchez was formerly an official at the Defense Intelligence Agency. (53) Lloyd Bucher was the commanding officer of the USS Pueblo. (54) George Jones is a retired General in the U.S. Air Force. (54) Douglas

MacArthur is former U.S. ambassador to Japan, Belgium, Austria, and Iran. (54)

E. David Woellner was a special operations chief in Vietnam. (53)

Woellner said that then U.S. ambassador to Honduras, John Negroponte, had provided "cooperation" with CAUSA’s aid programs for Nicaraguan refugees in Honduras. (75) Woellner also said that the Honduras projects were coordinated by the wives of the Honduran president (then Roberto Suazo Cordoba), Negroponte, and Woellner. (75)

Prior to the congressional cutoff of U.S. government assistance to the Nicaraguan contras, Oliver North suggested the creation of a private organization which could funnel material aid and funds to the rebels. In a March 16, 1985 memo to thenNational Security Adviser Robert McFarlane, North recommended creating a tax-exempt "Nicaraguan Freedom Fund" in case Congress rejected contra funding. McFarlane approved the plan. (58) Shortly after Congress refused to okay contra aid, the Washington Times set up the Nicaraguan Freedom Fund. There is no "smoking gun," however, proving direct involvement of Lt. Col. North in the establishment of the Times’ NFF. (49,58)

Moon came to the United States in 1971 due to the intervention of Sen. Strom Thurmond (R-SC) who helped the Korean religious leader overcome immigration obstacles. (67) Thurmond had spoken at a 1970 World Anti-Communist League convention sponsored by Shokyo Rengo. (67)

U.S. Sen. Orrin Hatch (R-Utah) has spoken at CAUSA conferences and supported Moon during his imprisonment. (66,67)

A Pentagon analyst under the Reagan administration warned against involvement of the Unification Church with the U.S. government and its projects. The memo warned,"Current Moonie involvement with government officials, contractors and grantees could create a major scandal. If their activities and role become public knowledge, it will unite both the left and the right in attacking the administration." The memo, entitled "Potential Problems," also said,"If efforts are not taken to stop their growing influence and weed out current Moonie involvement in government, the president stands a good chance of being portrayed in the media as a poor, naive incompetent who is strong on ideology and weak on common sense… . The likelihood of a reporter or a Democratic staff member piecing the total picture together is too great to be neglected. Any thought that this festering problem will go away if ignored is foolish."(44)

The film "Nicaragua Was Our Home" was featured at a special White House briefing on the Miskito Indians in 1985. (51) After the screening of the documentary at the 1984 U. N. Human Rights Commission meeting (see Activities), a U.S. State Dept cable reported the event as a great success. (The cable was obtained under the Freedom of Information Act by professor Roxanne Ortiz of California State. ) The European office of the U.S. Information Agency sent a similar cable to U.S. headquarters after a July 1984 showing of the film on German television. (54) Ortiz attended the human rights commission meeting in 1984 and reported that filmmaker Shapiro said the documentary had been made under contract to USIA. A journalist at the event, however, said the film was shown under the auspices of the Honduran government. (54)

USIA paid $10,000 for the "non-exclusive rights" to Shapiro’s documentary in January 1986. The agency then proceeded to show the film at various embassies, including the U.S. embassy in Costa Rica. (58)

Lt. Gen. Daniel Graham is former head of the Defense Intelligence Agency (1971-1976). (13,28) He was in charge of army intelligence in Saigon and was accused along with Gen. William Westmoreland of participating in a conspiracy to suppress correct enemy troop estimates during the Vietnam War. He served as a military adviser to President Reagan. (28)

Joseph Churba is a former senior policy adviser to the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency. (1)

Almicar Santamaria, Honduran Minister of Information in 1984, was a member of CAUSA. (54)

Eugene McCarthy is a former Democratic Senator from Minnesota.

CAUSA’s first seminar in Uruguay was held in 1981 and included members of the military elite as participants. The Commander-in-Chief of the Uruguayan Army General Luis Queirolo, Minister of the Interior Alejandro Rovira, and Head of Public Relations Col. Laroque attended Bo Hi Pak’s opening lecture. (23)

CAUSA-Paraguay was set up after a meeting between Bo Hi Pak and then-president Gen. Alfredo Stroessner. (23) The Chilean branch of CAUSA was set up after Pak ment with Gen. Augusto Pinochet. (23)

Salvador Laurel, vice president of the Philippines told a CAUSA meeting that "the need for the struggle mounted by CAUSA is most urgent in the case of the Philippines… CAUSA should find the Philippines a fertile ground for its activities and programs."(52) Brigadier General Egardo Abenina, head of the police in Central Viscayas, attended a CAUSA seminar. He commented,"I’ve read so much about communism but never understood it until I saw the CAUSA’s graphic presentation."(52) The October 1986 conference on national security sponsored by CAUSA in Manila included then Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile and then Chief of Staff Gen. Ramos as participants. (8)

Private Connections: Miscellaneous people linked to the church include: Arnaud de Borchgrave (editor, Washington Times), Daniel O. Graham, Joseph Churba, Terry Dolan, Gen. George Keegan, and Miles Costick. (1) Lynn Bouchey of the Council for Inter-American Security has spoken at CAUSA conferences. (1)

In the United States, CAUSA USA has worked on projects with the National Center for Constitutional Studies, Western Goals Foundation, Coalition for Religious Freedom, Freeman Institute, and the Conservative Alliance (CALL). (23) The Moon affiliate donated $500,000 to CALL’s National Coalition for America’s Survival project and its Human Rights and National Survival program. (23,47) CALL was headed by John T. (Terry) Dolan, then chair of the National Conservative Political Action Committee (NCPAC). (37) CALL’s media and lobbying project aimed to push for economic sanctions against and the severing of all relationships with communist regimes. (23,47)

The UC organization has also funded the Conservative Youth Foundation ($250,000 in 1985 from CAUSA), California Republican Youth Caucus ($5000 in 1984 from CAUSA), Republican National Committee ($10,000 in 1984 from Bo Hi Pak and another $10,000 the same year from James Gavin). (67)

During Sun Myung Moon’s imprisonment for tax evasion and conspiracy, the Unification Church hired the public relations firms of (Robert Keith) Gray and Co. (Washington DC ) and Madison Fielding (Los Angeles) to lobby on behalf of Moon and the UC. (23) Robert Keith Gray is a former campaign official for Ronald Reagan. (67)

In Guatemala, CARP is associated with FUNDAPI (Foundation for Aid to the Indian People), an organization which has assisted the Guatemalan army’s pacification program in the highlands. (57)

CAUSA has helped fund the World Anti-Communist League (WACL), and the Unification Church is one of four main elements within League. (1,6) Moon claimed that he raised $1. 4 million for the 1970 WACL conference at which Sen. Thurmond spoke. (67)

The Japanese chapter of the World Anti-Communist League (WACL) was built around the membership of the UC. (58) Osami Kuboki, the president of the Japanese branch of the church is also head of the Japanese affiliate of WACL. (58,59) Indeed, Fred Clarkson contends that Moon organization is an "integral part" of WACL. (67) Shokyo Rengo (Victory Over Communism), the Japanese chapter of WACL, was established following a meeting between Moon, Ryiochi Sasakawa, Yoshio Kodama, and two of Kodama’s lieutenants. Kodama was the head of organized crime in Japan, and Osami Kuboki was one of the two lieutenants at the meeting. Sasakawa–an important World War II Japanese war criminal–and Kodama headed the WACL affiliate. (67,75) Sasakawa helps finance the UC and Shokyo Rengo, according to Clarkson, and the latter organization is controlled by the church. (67) Nobosuke Kishi (see Govt Connections) was a leader in WACL during the late 1960s. (67)

In 1975, Moon denounced WACL as "fascist" and claimed to withdraw from the group, but reports in the New York Times, Searchlight, and elsewhere indicate a continuing relationship between the UC and WACL. (67)

Takeshi Furuta attended the 1985 conference of the World Anti-Communist League as the representative of the Intl Federation for Victory Over Communism. Also in attendance was William Starr of Tucson, Arizona, representing CAUSA as an observer. (59)

CAUSA is an important funder of the French neofascist party, the National Front, according to the estranged wife of the party’s leader. (67)

Bo Hi Pak gave a check for $50,000 to Honduran strongman Gen. Gustavo Alvarez Martinez at the opening ceremony for APROH (Association of Progress for Honduras). Alvarez at the time was head of APROH, a newly-established organization which was almost immediately accused by human rights watchdog groups of providing financial backing for paramilitary groups. (1)

Miles Costick is (was) president of the Institute on Strategic Trade. (54) Milton Reid is (or was) president of the Tidewater Council for Church and Social Action. (54)

Among the participants at the 1983 CAUSA conference in Guatemala City (see Activities) were Nguyen Cao Ky, former president of South Vietnam, Lloyd Bucher, U.S. commander during the Korean War, and Bo Hi Pak. (36)

Arnaud de Borchgrave, editor of the Washington Times, is a senior associate of the Center for Strategic and International Studies. (1)

In the court case discussed in Miscellanous, the two plaintiffs said they had been recruited by Unification Church members who concealed their identities by saying they were members of the Creative Community Project. (4)

CAUSA has been involved with Western Goals Foundation, the Natl Center for Constitutional Studies, the Coalition for Religious Freedom, Freeman Institute, Conservative Alliance (CALL), and the Cuban-American Natl Foundation. (6,9,47) Western Goals has advertised in the Washington Times. (9)

Steadman Fagoth, head of the Nicaraguan Miskito rebel force, attended CAUSA’s First Pan-American Convention in Uruguay, in February 1984. (23) Also at that conference was Gen. Robert Richardson II. Richardson is/was a member of the World Anti-Communist League and an advisor to the FDN, the largest anti-Sandinista contra force. (23) Richardson, who is also on the national board of advisors of CAUSA USA, is (or was) deputy director of High Frontier, the defense lobby headed by Daniel Graham. (54)

The chair of the Nicaraguan Freedom Fund was former treasury secretary William Simon. Simon was also a board member of PRODEMCA, or Friends of the Democratic Center in Central America, a private group which channeled U.S. government funds to the anti-Sandinista political opposition. (28) He is on the advisory committee of the AmeriCares Foundation, another important private supporter of the Nicaraguan contras and the internal political opposition in Nicaragua. (28,30,31) The Nicaraguan Freedom Fund designated AmeriCares as its intermediary for providing funds for humanitarian relief to the Nicaraguan refugees in Honduras. As a consequence, the NFF transferred $165,648. 04 to AmeriCares in 1985. (39) Simon is the president of the Olin Foundation, a funder of Lee Shapiro’s film-making expedition to Afghanistan described in Miscellaneous. (27) He is a trustee of the Heritage Foundation. (28)

As noted above, the Intl Relief Friendship Foundation has donated humanitarian aid to Friends of the Americas. (65) Accuracy in Media chairman Reed Irvine has spoken at at least one conference sponsored by the World Media Association. (37)

Eugene P. Wigner, a physicist at Princeton University and a Nobel laureate, received a $200,000 "founder’s award" from Moon at an ICUS conference in 1982. (37) Wigner is on the board of trustees of Freedom House. (40) He is or was a member of the board of directors of the Committee on the Present Danger. (41) He is also on the advisory board of Accuracy in Media and was on the advisory board of Western Goals Foundation. (42)

The Rev. Tim LaHaye, head of Family Life Seminars and of the now-moribund American Coalition for Traditional Values (ACTV), has received money from the Moon organization for ACTV. (14,45) The Media Institute–not a Moon organization-delivered a paper at Moon’s 1982 World Media Conference. (14)

Gary Jarmin is a lobbyist with Christian Voice. Although he says he is no longer affiliated with the UC, he helped organize the first CAUSA North America conference in 1983. He also helped organize the Coalition for Religious Freedom’s God and Freedom Banquet to celebrate Moon’s release from prison and, in 1986, led legislative workshops at CAUSA sessions for legislators. (67) He has been a speaker for CAUSA’s American Leadership conferences. (67)

Morton Kaplan, a political scientist at the University of Chicago, is one of five professors who–as of 1984–received $5000 per year to serve as a "senior consultant" to the ICF. (37) Kaplan is editor of The World and I, a UC magazine. (45)

J. A. (Jay) Parker was a speaker at a 1983 CAUSA conference in Honduras. (1) Parker is on the board of directors of the Council for the Defense of Freedom and of the U.S. Council for World Freedom. (19,60) He has served on the seminar faculty for the Christian Anti-Communism Crusade. (20,21) Parker is a board member of the American Conservative Union. (25) He has also served as a trustee of the Conservative Caucus Foundation. (38) He is president of the Lincoln Institute for Research and Education and a member of the natl advisory board of the American Freedom Coalition (AFC). (15,16)

According to Fred Clarkson, the American Freedom Coalition represents a "marriage" of the conservative religious lobby Christian Voice and the UC’s American Constitution Committee. (49) Clarkson says that the AFC is like a "classic" UC front group because "it resembles the Unification Church organization structurally and because of its links to the Constitution Committee both financially and in terms of staff."(49) Other members of the AFC advisory or policy boards who are linked to the UC organization include Phillip Sanchez, Joseph Paige, Cleon Skousen, Jose Maria Chavez, James L. Bevel, Daniel Graham, and Joseph Churba. (15,16,18)

Joseph Paige is executive vice president of the Shaw Divinity School. (15) The UC gave $60,000 in contributions to Shaw. Sometime after those contributions were made, Shaw awarded Moon an honorary doctorate. (11,67)

Warren Richardson was director of the Coalition for Religious Freedom (CRF) until 1984 when Donald Sills assumed the position. (11) According to Sills, the CRF received $500,000 in start-up funds from the Moon organization. (14,49,67) More recently, Sills has said on separate occasions both that there is and is not continued funding from the UC for the coalition. (49) Joseph Paige is on the executive committee of the coalition, as is Cleon Skouson. (64) Don Sills has spoken at CAUSA events. CRF conferences in California relied on UC members for organization and staffing, and participants were urged to join CAUSA by CAUSA’s regional coordinator. (11) The coalition is best described as a "closely-associated entity" to the UC, according to Larry Zilliox of the Cult Awareness Network, a Moon-watcher. (65) Clarkson agrees that the CRF is not a "classic UC front because it isn’t corporately linked to the church," and its organization and structure do not mimic the UC’s as tightly as church offshoots. But Clarkson contends that the CRF is a "de facto Moon front" because it is "funded by, staffed by, and controlled by UC members."(49)

Joseph Paige is chairman of the World Council on Religious Liberty (WCRL), and Don Sills is chair of the WCRL’s North American caucus. (67) The establishment of the WCRL was announced in the New York City Tribune. (67)

The Committee to Defend the U.S. Constitution and the American Constitution Committee, both Moon organizations, should not be confused with the National Center for Constitutional Studies (NCCS). Headed by Cleon Skouson, the NCCS has been supported financially by Moon through Bo Hi Pak and has worked cooperatively with the church on various projects. Skouson himself has worked directly with CAUSA, organizing legislative conferences, but the NCCS is not a member of the Moon network. (49,67)

The following UC/CAUSA supporters were (and may still be) members of the board of governors of the Council for Natl Policy (CNP): Joseph Churba, John T. Dolan (deceased), Smith Hempstone (exec editor, Washington Times), J. A. Parker, Cleon Skousen, Gary Jarmin, and Daniel Graham. (17,76) James Whelan–who left the Washington Times alleging undue UC influence on editorial decisions–was also on the Council for Natl Policy’s board of governors. (17,76) Robert Grant, Mildred Jefferson, Richard Viguerie, and Carter Wrenn of the national board of the American Freedom Coalition were also on the CNP’s board of governors. (76)

J. A. Parker and Dan Graham are board members of the U.S. Council for World Freedom (USCWF), the U.S. branch of the World Anti-Communist League. (1,60) Graham is (or was) co-chair of the USCWF. They are also on the council of advisers of the Committee for a Free Afghanistan. (28)

Dan Graham is/was co-chairman of the Coalition for Peace through Strength, a project of the American Security Council. (1) He is chairman of the High Frontier, a defense lobby which supports the Strategic Defense Initiative ("Star Wars"). (28) The South African government in 1977 secretly paid the Institute of Policy Studies–a University of Miami research institute then headed by Graham–to produce an "independent study" espousing the strategic importance of South Africa to the West. (28) Graham was one of eight New Right leaders who forced a meeting with President Reagan and top members of his staff in a last-minute effort to block the Afghan peace accords in April 1988. (27,29)

Daniel Graham and Charles Lichenstein were on the dinner committee of a December 9, 1985 "Dinner for Afghan Relief" sponsored by the Committee for a Free Afghanistan. Other members of the dinner committee were Gen. John Singlaub (U.S. Council for World Freedom, World Anti-Communist League), Lewis Lehrman (Heritage Foundation, Citizens for America, Democracy Intl), Pat Robertson (Christian Broadcasting Network), Richard V. Allen (Heritage Foundation, Committee for a Free Afghanistan), Angier Biddle Duke (PRODEMCA), Elliot Richardson (Attorney General under Richard Nixon; one of the "victims" of the Watergaterelated "Saturday Night Massacre"), Louis and Diane Jenkins (Friends of the Americas), and Larry Spivey. (27,28)

In December 1987, Lichenstein–a senior fellow at the Heritage Foundation–participated in a panel discussion sponsored by that organization concerning support for the Afghan rebels. (27,38) Lichenstein sits on the national advisory board of the Conservative Caucus and is chairman of the advisory board of the International Freedom Foundation. (38) In 1986, he spoke at a pro-contra conference in London which then set up the Committee for a Free Nicaragua. According to Searchlight, the conference may have been paid for by the Heritage Foundation. (38)

Warren Richardson once acted as general counsel to the Liberty Lobby. He also served as a lobbyist for the CAUSA-funded CALL and helped draft the package of bills known as the Human Rights and National Survival Program. It was that package that CALL was promoting when it received CAUSA funding. (47)

David Finzer served on the board of the International Youth Year Commission, an entity which was implicated in the diversion of funds to the contras revealed by the Iran-Contra scandal. (68) He is co-founder of the World Youth Freedom League, the youth affiliate of the World Anti-Communist League. (67,68) Finzer is head of the Washington-based Conservative Action Foundation, a group which has supported the faction of the Mozambique National Resistance (MNR or Renamo) led by Artur Vilankulu. (67) The World Youth Freedom League–which provides seminars in "political technology" for WACL youth members–reportedly received grant funding from WACL’s South Korean chapter. (67)

The World Without War Council–connected to the U.S. government and U.S. intelligence agencies–participated in a May 1985 conference in Seattle which was sponsored by CARP and CAUSA. The conference was titled "Inside Nicaragua: The Sandinista Impact," and panel participants included Matthew Morrison, then-executive director of CAUSA Northwest. (22)

The Cult Awareness Network has established a connection between the Han Corporation and the UC. Daniel Bozarth of Han has been maintaining residence at the UC’s World Mission Center, and Han planned to build an addition for its equestrian center on land owned by Ginseng Up, a UC affiliate. Further, one of Han’s addresses (50 E. Sunnyside Lane, Irvington NY) is property owned by the UC and is adjacent to Rev. Moon’s new estate (see Addresses). (24)

Gary Jarmin is president of the Free Asia Foundation, a Washington DC organization concerned with communist expansion in Asia. (25) At least as of 1982, he was on the council of advisors of the Committee for a Free Afghanistan, as was Arnaud de Borchgrave. (27)

James Whelan became editor-in-chief at Conservative Digest. (32)

Speakers at the 1986 World Media Conference included Clare Booth Luce (Knights of Malta, former ambassador to Italy, former U.S. Congresswoman, member of Ronald Reagan’s Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board), Arnaud de Borchgrave, John McLaughlin ("The McLaughlin Group"), Ann Compton ("ABC World News Tonight"), Ben Wattenberg (American Enterprise Institute), James Kilpatrick (columnist), Carl Rowan (columnist), U.S. Rep. Henry Hyde, Mary Anne Dolan (LA Herald Examiner), Lyn Nofziger (former Reagan press secretary), William Greider (Rolling Stone magazine), Tom Bethell (columnist), Irving R. Levine (NBC News), Warren T. Brookes (Boston Globe), David Warsh (Boston Globe), David Horowitz and Peter Collier (founders of the Berkeley New Left Movement), Midge Decter (Com

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